Discovering the Elements

The explosive story of chemistry is the story of the building blocks that make up our entire world – the elements. From fiery phosphorous to the pure, untarnished lustre of gold and the dazzle of violent, violet potassium, everything is made of elements – the earth we walk on, the air we breathe, even us. For centuries this world was largely unknown and completely misunderstood.

In this three-part series (BBC 2015), which here follow after each other, professor of theoretical physics Jim Al-Khalili traces the extraordinary story of how the elements were discovered and mapped. He follows in the footsteps of the pioneers who cracked their secrets and created a new science, propelling us into the modern age.

Just 92 elements made up the world, but the belief that there were only four – earth, fire, air, and water – persisted until the 19th century. Professor Al-Khalili retraces the footsteps of the alchemists who began to question the notion of the elements in their search for the secret of everlasting life.

The Beginning of Everything: The Big Bang

Has the universe a beginning or was it here since forever? Well, evidence suggests that there was indeed a starting point to this universe we are part of right now. But how can this be? How can something come from nothing? And what about time? We don’t have all the answers yet so let’s talk about what we know.

Crash Course Physics

The “Crash Course Physics” (2016) consists of eight short episodes presented by the charming Dr. Shini Somara, who got her doctorate in engineering at Brunel University (London) by the age of 24. We get a brief introduction to motion, calculus (derivatives, integrals, and vectors), Newton’s laws, friction, uniform circular motion, and Newtonian gravity.

100 Greatest Discoveries in Physics

This episode of “100 Greatest Discoveries” (2004 TV Mini-Series) recounts thirteen important discoveries in physics, including Galileo’s law of falling bodies, Isaac Newton’s laws of motion, and Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity. Film Duration: 44 min.

How medical physics has changed health care

Many of the greatest inventions in modern medicine were developed by physicists who imported technologies such as X-rays, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasound, particle accelerators and radioisotope tagging and detection techniques into the medical domain. There they became magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT) scanning, nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, and various radiotherapy treatment methods. These contributions have revolutionized medical techniques for imaging the human body and treating disease.

There are some ways in which medical physicists contribute to medicine. Some develop cutting-edge technologies in the physics laboratory while others are board-certified health professionals who apply these technologies in the clinic and help diagnose illness and alleviate the suffering of people.

A few highlights of the many ways in which medical physics has revolutionized medicine include:

USING PARTICLE ACCELERATORS TO DEFEAT CANCER

In the last 60 years, medical physicists have spearheaded the development and application of particle accelerators for cancer treatment. Once confined only to physics laboratories, linear accelerators are sophisticated high energy machines that can now deliver beams of energetic electrons or X-rays to malignant tumors – at doses capable of killing cancerous cells and stopping the tumor’s growth.

In recent years, an advanced treatment technique called intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has enhanced the ability of radiation to control tumors. IMRT uses computer programs to shape the treatment field precisely and control the accelerator beam to deliver a maximal dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the doses to surrounding healthy tissues. IMRT is already in use for treating prostate cancer, cancers of the brain, head, and neck and other malignant diseases, in children and adults.

BETTER DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

Techniques for breast imaging have undergone substantial advances since the introduction of the original film techniques. The early emulsion films were replaced with more sensitive film stocks and finally with digital imaging. As each of these newer techniques was introduced, doses to the patient were reduced and the sensitivity of the techniques for finding early and treatable disease increased. Computer-aided diagnosis and the use of MRI and CT for breast imaging promises to further advance cancer detection and treatment in the 21st century. MRI breast imaging is proving particularly useful for finding growths in younger women and at earlier stages.

MATTER/ANTIMATTER COLLISION IMAGING

Another rapidly growing technique used to detect diseases in people of all ages is positron emission tomography (PET). This technique uses short-lived radionuclides produced in cyclotrons. These nuclides are labeled to compounds such as glucose, testosterone, and amino acids to monitor physiological factors including blood flow and glucose metabolism. These images can be crucial for detecting seizures, coronary heart disease, and ischemia. In cancer care PET imaging is used to detect tumors and monitor the success of treatment courses as well as detecting early recurrent disease.

The actual imaging technique sounds like a science fiction movie — it involves matter and antimatter annihilating one another. The short-lived radionuclides decay and emit particles known as positrons — the antimatter equivalent to electrons. These positrons rapidly encounter electrons, collide, annihilate, and produce a pair of photons which move in opposite directions. These photons can be captured in special crystals and the images produced by computer techniques.

Other techniques, such as radioimmunoassay, use the decay of radioactive materials to study a variety of physiological conditions by imaging or chemical methods.

ENSURING THE SAFETY OF PEOPLE WHO GET CT SCANS

With the intent to promote the best medical imaging practices and help ensure the health and safety of people who undergo CT scanning, methods from medical physics are used to standardize ways of reporting doses and educate users on the latest dose reduction technology.

MEDICAL PHYSICS MOMENTS IN HISTORY

Some of the greatest medical advances in the history of medicine occurred in the past century and came from the minds and laboratories of physicists including:

  • X-rays
    Discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen in 1895, the application of these rays to medical imaging was recognized and embraced immediately. When the Nobel Prizes were established at the turn of the century in 1901, Roentgen won the first prize (in physics) for his discovery of X-rays.
  • Magnetic Resonance
    Though Felix Bloch and Edward M. Purcell shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1952, just a few years after discovering the phenomenon of magnetic resonance, it took a few more decades before their discovery led to the development of MRI, which is routinely used today to image the human body. In 2003, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield for their work in MRI.
  • Radioimmunoassays
    In 1977, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to AAPM member Rosalyn Yalow for her the development of radioimmunoassays, an extremely sensitive diagnostic technique that can quantify tiny amounts of biological substances in the body using radioactively-labeled materials.
  • Computer-assisted tomography
    In 1979, Allan M Cormack and Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for developing CT, which has revolutionized imaging because CT provides images with unprecedented clarity.

LOOK FOR MORE TO COME

The Medical Physics Unit at the Faculty of Medicine, Ovidius University of Constanta wishes to play its part in generating new knowledge and to participate in cutting-edge research.

Biophysics Exams for 1st Year Medical Students: May 23-27, 2016

Days: May 23, 24, 25, 26, and 27, 2016
Time: from 9.00 and 11.00 a.m.
Room: E 127

Test in  Biophysics for 1st Year Medical Students: May 10, 2016

Day: May 10, 2016
Time: 9.00 a.m.
Room: E 127